Terça-feira, 25 de Março de 2014


                                                                                                                                                            AUTHOR: MALUA, Rajabo Caetano Bernardo



The present work aims to address ethnology of African people in general and particularly the Ndau people. Since departing from ethnography , ethnology studies all the facts documented in the cultural and social anthropological sense , ie , compare the cultures studied by ethnography.

Basically , ethnology was understood as the study of primitive societies , is currently considered a study of the characteristics of an ethnic group ( human groups ) . The work is divided into two chapters . The term African people try to refer to people who live in Africa or people who trace their ancestry to Natural inhabitants of Africa , will speak of their cultural practices , social organization. Ndau is an ethical group inhabiting the valley of the Zambezi , Mozambique until the center of its coast and eastern Zimbabwe .



Gerail :

Ø Describe the African ethnology, Ndau people.



Ø Define Ethnology , People, Rites , tribe , Myth , Culture concepts ;

Ø Find Africa;

Ø Find the people Ndau region.



For the realization of this work was carried out the literature search and consultation on the internet .









    According to Tylor , Father of Modern Anthropology (1871 ) Culture - complex set involving knowledge , belief , art, morals , laws, customs and various other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society ;


Or is a set of activities and way of acting , customs and instructions of a people , or means by which man adapts to the conditions of existence transforming reality .



    According to Mircea Eliade - an exemplary story is to establish standards for human behavior .


To K. Marx - is an alienation , a projection , or are narratives used by ancient Greek people to explain the facts of reality and phenomena .



    group of citizens of a country that is, people who are tied to a specific legal regime , to a state .



    is a set of otherwise regulated religious ceremonies , according to the various communions or in different societies .



    is the name - is given to each of the divisions of the ancient peoples , possessing a territory and some kind of command, having in common the same ancestry.


    is the study or science of facts or documents raised by ethnography in cultural and social anthropology , seeking an analytical and comparative assessment of the crops .


In his original interpretation , was the study of primitive societies , however , with the development of anthropology , primitive term , was abandoned by believing that exalt ethnic prejudice .


So now it says that anthropology is the study of features of any ethnicity , ie , human - people group or social group that has some identifiable socio economic structure , where members generally have face to face interactions , and there is a commonality of culture and language .


This study aims to establish general development and corporate lines . The ethnographer observes the differences between societies since the gait and uses the body ( body techniques ) to the celebration of marriage and funerals . Should analyze the entire social life of a people and a place , especially watching what these people say of himself , and the way it identifies its participants .


Ethnography is one of the most important resources racism and cultural hegemony in that it provides the means to perform a critique of ethnocentrism which parcializa investigations .


Ethnographic studies have recovered the knowledge and techniques of the staples people as a way of ( ethno ) knowledge in several areas , such as :

- Biology ( ethnobiology ) , Pharmacology , and Botanical ( herbal ) Engineering ( boats , houses, bridges etc. ) , Psychology , Medicine etc. .


In this last field there is an integration between techniques ( tecne ) and know ( epsteme ) that has been called by medical anthropology and the study of ethnomedical system and shamanism .



CHAPTER I: Ethnology of African Peoples


Geographic Location of the African Continent


With about 30 million km ² , equivalent to just over 22 % of its land area of the globe , is the third largest landmass of our planet .


Most of the continent is located in the tropical zone , therefore the tropic of cancer cuts in the northern portion ( north ) and Capricorn in the southern portion ( south ) .


The predominant type of relief is plain, the plains are areas of lesser extent and are located along the coast . Dominated by warm climates .


It has a low, sandy shore , rarely by cliffs and jagged bit broken , so it is said that is a massive continent. Worthy recesses are highlighting the Gulf of Guinea, and the Sitre bay of Sofala . Madagascar is the largest island in Africa , is situated in the Indian Ocean.

With over 800 million people, has less than 15 % of the world population .

However , due to high birth rate existing on the African continent (it is one of the highest in the world , as well as mortality ) .


Composition of the population and religions


Africa is a continent of great ethnic , cultural and linguistic diversity .

It was the first continent to be inhabited with people called Berbers and Bantu of the first human groups together.


The portion of the African territory located north of the Sahara desert , is called White Africa, where predominate :

• The Arabs who conquered North Africa in the seventh century and settled in Egypt , Tunisia , Libya and eastern Algeria ;

• The Berbers constitute the most ancient peoples of the Maghreb , forming the majority of Morocco's population and mountainous regions of Algeria , between these stand out from the Tuaregs , nomadic people who live in the desert .

Both groups cited mostly profess the Muslim religion.


The population of the south of the Sahara desert is called Black Africa because that's where Blacks predominate , constituting a wide variety of people . Speak over a hundred different languages ​​and over 700 dialects , together with the languages ​​introduced by settlers , as the French , the English and the Portuguese .

Follow animism , ie beliefs in spirits or invisible forces that manifest themselves in all acts of life . But also practice Christianity , introduced into Africa by the colonizer .

Other groups are Black Muslims , especially Sudanese .


Grouping of Black people


• Sudanese - inhabit western Africa and already knew how to use the land and use the iron , before the arrival of European ;


• Bantu - constitute the largest group and occupy most of Africa (equatorial and southern region ) ;

• Nilotic - inhabit the region of the Upper Nile and are distinguished by height ;

• Hottentots - live from South Africa, who are dedicated to creating nomadic cattle ;

• Bushmen - inhabit the thorny steppe nearby Desert kalaari where live the collection and hunting ;

• Pygmies - have small statures , inhabit the rainforest and experience a level of primitive life.


The peoples of the African continent , often use costumes , body paint , fabrics and adornments , as the identity of its proper group.


Generally paints are used in ceremonies , to adorn the body or to display their style

Tribe, every painting has a different meaning . Africa is home to several tribes and ethnic groups . The continent has over 20 different groups . Each of these groups and these Tribes , which can be formed by hundreds , thousands or even millions of people have their own culture , traditions and customs .

These customs and traditions call attention to be on many curious , funny , weird , shocking or controversial cases , such as :


Surma tribe


This tribe is composed of an isolated people in southwestern Ethiopia and their wives have as usual using the wooden disc in his lower lip , usually at festive occasions also paint their bodies .

Disk size is proportional to the magnitude of the dowry ( property or money given to woman home) that the family of the bride to the groom can afford . They can only get the disk when there are no men around. For this tribe , the larger the disc, is more beautiful and rich woman .


Ndebele Tribe


The Ndebele is in Lesedi Africa , Women who inhabit wear heavy metal rings on the neck , legs , and arms , after getting married . According to them the rings serve not to flee from their husbands , and not look to the side.


Tribe of Nigeria


In some areas of Nigeria, Women make scarifications on the body , marks made with skin cuts , which represent important stages in their lives . When you heal the cuts are similar to an income . Because they do not wear clothes , scars are also aesthetic and symbol of beauty .

Brands starting to be made ​​from the age of 5 , in specific parts of the body , following a sequence . Young adult and are only considered eligible for marriage when the entire sequence of design are complete .


Myth function for African


The African nation has one of the earliest manifestations of human thought trying to dictate values ​​and concepts of human thought , and submission to their gods . There are also beliefs and ritual practices :

- A stage vanishingly more complex and asking works of nature.




Origin and ethnology of the Ndau people


The origins of the Ndau people are not easy to trace because of the scarcity of sources and contradictions . However , it seems safe to say that the origins of the group are connected is fragmented kingdoms of Mon Pire Muenemutapa and the expansionary cycles linhageiros groups Shonas - Caraga , the Rozvi , the central highlands of Zimbabwe towards the coastline of the Indian Ocean.


The Social Organization Traditional Ndau


The Ndau is an ethical group inhabiting the valley of the Zambezi , Mozambique until the center of its coast and eastern Zimbabwe south of Mutare .


The ancestors of Swaziland Ndaus were warriors who joined with the local population , ethnically constituted by Manikas , Tewes , Barwes in Manica and Sofala . The local people of Zimbabwe , before the arrival of the Nguni , descend primarily current Mbire next Hwadza .


The ndaus speak a language belonging to linguistic family xona , the Ndau .


Geographic Location and number of speakers of the language Ndau


The Ndau language is spoken in the provinces of Sofala , Manica and Inhambane in the Northern zone. It is also spoken in the Republic of Zimbabwe .

According to Martin (2004 ) Ndau people located in the southern region of the African continent in central Mozambique , therefore, in Sofala province , there are more clusters in the districts Chibabava , Buzi , Machanga , Gorongosa , Nhamantada , Beira , Dondo .


In Manica province are in the districts of Machazi , Mussorizi and Chimoio City and northern part of Inhambane province ranging from Machacama the Mambone .

As for the number of speakers is noted that : about 581,000 Ndau speakers in Mozambique according to the data of population census 1997 .


Establishment of baseline variant


The Ndau shows regional variations in pronunciation.

For example, the coast ( Mussorisze and Machaze ) into the right words to soften R l , unlike the interior ( Buzi ) .


According to the classification ( Guthrie 1997) the language has the following variants :


Cimachanga , spoken in Machanga District , Buzi in Sofala and the District of Mambone in Inhambane . The variant has Cimashanga subdialects Cibwani and Cibhara , both spoken in the district of Buzi ;

Cidanda spoken in the district of Machazi ; Cigova spoken in the district of Buzi ; Cidondo spoken Chibambava and Buzi ; Cibangwe , spoken in Beira ; Ciqwaka , spoken in Gorongosa by a community located in the Sierra ; Cinayai , falanda on the right bank of the Save this river until Machacame Mambone ; Cindau talking on district Mussurize and Chimoio in Manica province .


According to Keith, ( 19870 ) is the common Ndaus traçarem its origin in the Mbire region existed in this region in the seventeenth / sixteenth century with small kingdom that was linked to the great kingdom of Muenemutapa which became more independent .


The kingdom of Quiteve also arises in the late fifteenth century is a further split in the kingdom of Muenemutapa . This kingdom has come to assume a certain importance especially the seventeenth century because of the interest of the Arab and Portuguese merchants in the trade of ivory and gold. Quiteve controlled a vast region , this the central plateau of the chimoio area until the lowlands near Buzi in Sofala .

The Quiteve kingdom would lose this amount from the eighteenth century , in part because of the constant infighting among members of the royal family , but also because of a lack of Arab and Portuguese , when they realized that mining was not attractive , the decline of Sofala is closely related to the decline of the kingdom of Quiteve .


The traditional socio- political organization


The first in-depth studies and systematic nature of this population , known for etnónimo Ndau , could only be made ​​in the first half of the twentieth century .


Several authors have postulated that the name Ndau was assigned to these populations by the invading Nguni and derived from observing the customary form of greeting before a king head , or even a foreigner this and Ndau people , which is to sit on the floor , or kneel , clap hands and screaming " Ndau ui , ui Ndau " ( Junod , 1934 Rita Ferreira , 1982) .


This traditional form of greeting was first described by Frei João dos Santos on its eastern Ethiopia work in 1609. It is unclear from what source the author withdrew this information or if it is speculation , however , it is certain that this view of the origin of this etnónimo Ndau at present rooted and widely accepted by these populations .


According Vijfhuizen (1998 ) the term Ndau literally mean , " place " associated with a traditional way of greeting.

However , according to this author the term Ndau have already used long before the arrival of Europeans , information that the author draws from the work of Keith Rennie (1987 ) .


Different studies conducted on the Ndau have a fairly homogeneous social structure for all populations from the border with Zimbabwe at the coastline of the Indian .


Division of groups Ndau


1. The Shangas : these mainly inhabit the coastal strip between the Save and Buzi rivers and whose main totemic clan, is Simango . Simango Mambo was the most powerful of this region lived in Chiloane .


2 . The gova , who inhabit the lowlands lying between the Buzi and Save rivers , whose the most important is the mutupu Nkomo .


3 . The Danda , who inhabit the border region of Zimbabwe and the main and also the mutupu Nkomo .


4 . The Tombodji , inhabiting the highlands of the Massif Central , near the border between the Save River and chiamanimani massive . The most important was the mambo of tombodji Mutema Nkomo , who lived in the current zimbabwe region.


5 . Had those relating to the kingdom of Quiteve ( Junod 1934) , however , is problematic

had to consider them a Ndau subgroup. Despite having common origins , seems to be different groups with aspects of social organization that are distinct , with linguistic differences .


Rites of Initiation


Initiation rites are traditional ceremonies and cultural practiced in African societies that aims to prepare the teen to face another stage of life , ie adulthood .

Essentially aim at personal, social and cultural integration of the individual, allows the individual to meet multiple influences of their environment to then integrate it into their way of thinking, acting and behaving themselves , the individual actively participates in the activities and life of the group belongs .


In Mozambican society , initiation rites do not manifest the way homogenic . They vary from province to province , region to region , from religion to religion , and sex for sex.

The purpose of these ceremonies is to prepare boys and girls for matrimonial and social life and the initiation rite boys and girls have access to participation and knowledge of certain mysteries .


Description of some Ceremonies


Phase of Menstruation


When her mother discovers her daughter the signs of menstruation or tends to make sure all fairness if the assumption is true . Wake the girl and this , for everything has been prepared in secret , startles . Send - in stand and water it every three or four times . After you take all the clothes to just put a small strip of cloth that you pass through the legs .


All women were seated , the godmother sits in the middle of them , extend your legs and have the girl sit with your head up and leaning against each other .


This attitude began to sing , explaining the girl who is not afraid that this disease is normal ; give them standard of hygiene and teach her ​​how she should do sex with your man . The godmother will explain you everything in the body gesture .

Then, a Tia or Press raises the girl , holding her legs grabbing her arms , throws and falls to the ground on her. Lift it up, grab him by the body and throws it back to the ground with all the force . This is repeated several times over the time for the girl to pay and suffer in this way by the evil he has done with his past misdeeds .


Dress him a large cloth that covers it completely and require a whole week to get inside the house without showering .

During this time period must abstain from eating certain foods and can not taste food with salt.

Last week , the godmother comes to bath him and also give you license to go outside. Constrict him a hut next to the house and she can not leave here without permission of the mother , nor see men or married woman, or the groom .


When confronting someone must cover themselves and ordinarily walks accompanied by a child to notify the proximity of people .

This season it may take up to 2 months or more than 1 year, as the difficulty in finding the family raise money to end the party.


Then gather them drum - naked women all day and all night teaching the girl to dance these are severe and rigorous exercise and if the girl does not know or costs you learn beyond the punishment suffering , it is a great shame for the mother .

During the night come the cerimoniados boys and married men . Come all to listen to the advice given to young , style stemmed administered or represented by allegorical figures live .


All this is sung to the sound of two parallel bamboo posts where everyone can play. All these stemmed , who apparently seem innocent and devoid of any sense with married life .

Mathunya / Mathindji


Is the dilatation of the labia minora of the female reproductive system . The young girl , this tender age , is taken by his mother to kill , to teach him to do this operation after she repeated every day until the wedding. Reach denounces them both who can give you a node but if the woman exaggerate this, men do not want to , because she had too broad and not cause them sexual pleasure .


Is this a social custom , today the boys are already not caring about the subject , but it is common to find girls who do not arrange marriage or are abandoned and maligned for not having it .

Its aim is to extend the entrance of the vagina to facilitate intercourse . In its ostentatious man feels pleasure. When he is sad or tired, at the end of a work day , or a trip the woman undresses to show her this and so give you joy.


Wedding Ndau


The Ndau are arranged in large social units , based on the seed patrilinear system. The wider units are more extensive family groups totem clans , designated bvumbu or dzinza in the totem is designated mutupu .

The Ndau practice exogamous marriage bvumbu because "people can not marry within the same mutupu " . However, at present , this rule is often flouted , especially among the most urbanized villages host district population , and marriage between individuals with the same mutupu , or belonging to the same bvumbu .


Regarding Ndau marriage , this is officially evolves when the payment Lobolo . Kulola named in Cindau , which currently consists of a monetary amount that can vary between 1 and 1.5 thousand meters , while in the pre - colonial period mainly consisted in shawls .


In the precolonial period, Ndau also practiced a form of direct marriage, which did not involve the use of lobola .

Example : When someone wished a woman took her daughter to return type . Left her daughter and the daughter took the other as wife. This is due to lack of money.


Or marriage to predominate form of residence and virilocal , yet occasionally , you could opt for a temporary uxorilocal form, ie , when a man could not lobolar a woman rendered services during a time when home -laws prior to constitute your household in the land of his father , a custom that today and practiced.

The Ndau practice today levirate , ie , a man can take ( s ) wife ( s ) and children of his deceased brother .


The Social Place of Spirits

Spiritual Beings


According to Martinez (2007 ) , through religious activity society expresses its relationship with the spiritual world : with the transcendent , the supreme being , with other spiritual beings and the invisible forces . In fact there is a supreme being , whose existence is recognized universally , although the forms and ideologies existing in the world today what supreme being is never confused with spiritual beings , and among them all takes place whenever a certain hierarchy . Without them there would be no rites as it is to them that the rites are directed .


One of the most important aspects in the succession process is inuciação query to the spirits of deceased mambos , as, indeed , occur in most groups of Shona origin (Land , 1987) .

In this sense, it is necessary, at first, to understand the representations that the Ndau people conceive on aspects of life and death .


Franz Boas , an anthropologist who used it as informate k " amba Simango , wrote in 1920 that life for Ndaus is called Vgomi . On the concept of person, it consists of two parts:


- The body muvili , and the spirit , bvuli .

The muvili is a kind of shadow or reflection / image of a being . After the death bvuli only do you stay alive and becomes the spirit murugo .


The murugo has the character and shape of the deceased. It is not in the grave as the body , more remains to live with family , is immortal , and Ndaus not believe in reincarnation .


The Ndaus use the term to designate Mudzimu the spirit of a family . The vadzimu (plural ) are the spirits of the musi and are lived by the remaining members that is Nhamussoro :

Example : When a dying person will be buried after that spirit , if the person has children go to son or daughter, if you do not go to another family of the deceased ( a) .


The vadzimu are therefore varungu of the deceased a certain family group , and their function is to protect the members of the household against any unhappiness that is caused by other spirits .


Since Ndaus there is no notion of chance and every event of individual and collective life are interpreted as manifestations of varungu . This protective function of vadzimu is underlined by S , so that " vadzimu are good because they help take care of life to those who have not yet died as if they were God , the vadzimu walk with God " , " and also by AI , according to which the vadzimu " is to protect the family itself are that they can , for example to protect the family from other evil spirits . " The house vadzimu do battle with those evil spirits that are coming out of the other house , not to enter the house chela " .


It has a huge social role of ambivalence. They are simultaneously protecting your Musi , and this resort are formed as vadzimu for their relatives , while for all other individuals can mean a huge threat. When vadzimu act outside its Mushi are known as Nbvuri .


Among Ndaus of Mozambique there are not , the common belief among the Shona people of Zimbabwe , on the spirit of Nhandhoro , spirit of late mambo that embodies a medium (Land 1987) . For Ndaus Nhandhoro the spirit is a spirit that leaves a lion and this connects to the work of medium, Nhamussoro .






The finished work , we hope to have been able to achieve what we set from the beginning of this work , ie create in readers the desire to better understand the African ethnology , and facilitate the effort in understanding the contents that were explained . Since Africa has 53 countries , and among these countries each have their own way of experiencing , their culture beliefs . Throughout the work speak Ndau people, inhabiting from the Zambezi valley in Sofala to the coastal part of the Republic of Zimbabwe . These people as their origin and history were not easy to trace due to shortage of supplies .

We believe that sufficient to present the reader now have a proper understanding of the life and culture of African peoples and in particular Ndaus elements .




ADAS , Melhem , General Geography : Economic Policy Framework and the Contemporary World , 8 ᵃ series 1st grade are Paul ed . Modern , 1979

BICA , Ismael Ismael A. Firoza , times and spaces , Harbour Publishing , 6 ᵃ class , port publisher. Portugal

EDUARDO Medeiro . Puberty Rites of Initiation , Maputo , 1982

Electronic Address : www.Google.com

FLORÊNCIO , Fernando , When Meeting of Mambo , 1 ᵃ editing , press in the social sciences , Lisbon 2005.

MARTINEZ , Francisco Lerma , Cultural Anthropology , 5 ᵃ edition, Maputo 2007

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